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Frequently Asked Question (FAQ's) of Colon CancerBY: Ritu Choudhary | Category: Colon and Rectal Cancer | Submitted: 2010-08-15 18:14:59
What is a cancer of the colon or rectum/
It is adenocarcinoma, developed at the expense of the epithelial glands. The macroscopic form is the most common ulcerative fungating tumor. It may be polypoid and sessile, or limited to part of an adenomatous polyp. The invasive forms are very rare.
Are colon cancer and rectal cancer are common?
Approximately 33,000 new cases of colorectal cancer occur each year in a European country, with 15,000 deaths per year. Colorectal cancers represent 15% of all cancers. About 40% of these cancers affect the rectum, 60% colon where the main location is the sigmoid. Europe is among the regions at high risk of colorectal cancer like North America and Australia. The incidence is increasing steadily by 4% a year.
Why is the possibility of development of colon cancer and rectal cancer?
Over 90% of cancers of the colon and rectum are sporadic. Their incidence increases steadily with age. The risk becomes significant from 45 years and then doubles every decade. The average age of diagnosis is around 70 years. Between 60 and 80% of colorectal cancers develop from an adenoma. The risk of transformation of an adenoma into cancer varies depending on the size, extent of villous component in the adenoma and the degree of dysplasia. The cumulative probability of cancerous transformation of an adenoma with a diameter greater than or equal to 1 cm was calculated. It is 2.5% for patients ageing 5 years, 8% to 10% for patients ageing 20 to 24 years. Some cancers develop from flat lesions and small, mainly in the right colon, particularly during syndrome HNPCC. Certain characters transmitted hereditary manner, as in FAP and HNPCC, are responsible for an increased risk of colorectal cancer. These familiar forms account for less than 10% of cancers of the colon and rectum. Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis) have a risk of cancerous transformation. The risk is particularly high for pancolitis lasting for more than 10 years.
What are the symptoms that might indicate colorectal cancer?
Few symptoms of cancer may be as listed below:
- Abdominal pain of recent onset;
- Disorders of the bowel-onset, or the recent change in bowel disorders old;
- Iron deficiency anemia;
- Melena or rectal bleeding;
- An alteration of general condition;
- An abdominal tumor or liver metastasis;
- A complication (bowel obstruction or perforation).
What are the symptoms that might indicate cancer of the rectum?
Rectal bleeding-associated or not with a rectal syndrome (false needs urgent and frequent emission of bloody phlegm feces);
- Constipation or diarrhea recent;
- Rarely occlusion, anemia, metastases.
The diagnosis can be made by rectal examination in cancer developed in the middle or lower rectum.
Which test can diagnose colon cancer or rectal cancer?
The diagnosis of colon cancer based on colonoscopy to visualize the tumor and biopsies. The diagnosis of cancer of the rectum can be done on rectal examination, proctoscopy to the rigid tube and short colonoscopy.
What Preoperative-treatment to do in case of colon cancer?
The preoperative treatment of colon cancer should have, after a thorough clinical examination, the search:
- Synchronous lesions of the rectum and colon by colonoscopy or, in case of stenosis, a barium enema if it is anticipated that the stenosis will not result in retention of barium above;
- Visceral metastases by chest x-ray of face and profile, a liver ultrasound and possibly an abdominal CT examination.
What Preoperative-Treatment to do in case of rectal cancer?
The rectal examination to determine the location of the tumor compared to the sphincter, and intraluminal extension, to some extent, parietal infiltration by analysis of the mobile nature of the injury or fixed. When considering making a limited resection or local treatment of the tumor, rectal examination should be supplemented by pelvic imaging: a transrectal ultrasound (without endoscope probe) or ultrasonography. These imaging studies indicate the degree of parietal and allow the lymph nodes. The CT or MRI examination of the pelvis may be useful in case of tumor stenosis, in the locoregional staging.
Article Source: http://www.cancer-surgery.com/
About Author / Additional Info:
I am not a cancer doctor. Always consult your doctor before taking any action or conclusion regarding your medical condition.
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